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Parosphromenus parvulus copyright Helene Schoubye Johansen Parosphromenus sumatranus copyright David Jones Parosphromenus ornaticauda copyright Horst Linke Parosphromenus sp. bintan  copyright Helene Schoubye Johansen
Parosphromenus spe­cial behav­iour. 1
Do all parosphromenus species stand on their head when flash­ing ? – some­one asked me the other day at a presentation.
No – they don’t.
It’s a pecu­liar thing, that most of the paro-​species we know do stand head down when flash­ing, yet we know of 3 species that do the oppo­site. When the males do their lit­tle dance in front of the female they stand head up.
These 3 species are ornat­i­cauda, parvu­lus from Bor­neo and suma­tranus from Sumatra.
Ornat­i­cauda and parvu­lus are nor­mally thought of as paro-​species that dif­fer from the oth­ers paro-​species, in not only this way, — but also in bodyshape, size and gen­eral demands.
Sci­en­tific work by Went­ian Shi, shown in this paper, also sug­gests that parvu­lus is a very old species, and in a dis­tinct evo­lu­tion branch from other species, which might explain the dif­fer­ence. (see https://​mapress​.com/​z​t​/​a​r​t​i​c​l​e​/​v​i​e​w​/​z​o​o​t​a​x​a​.​5060​.​1​.​3​/​45781 )
But suma­tranus is dif­fer­ent from that , — it reminds of most other species, — as far as we know — except for this one fea­ture with the head-​up flashing.
Why the evo­lu­tion hap­pened like this we don’t know, we can just accept that this is a curi­ous dif­fer­ence between some of the parosphromenus species.
Below pho­tos of the 3 species + one ‘ordi­nary’ head down flash­ing species for com­par­i­son, P. sp. bintan
Pho­tos 1. Parvu­lus (credit Helene Schoubye Johansen) 2. Suma­tranus (credit David Jones) 3. Ornat­i­cauda (credit Horst Linke) P. sp. bin­tan (credit H.S.Johansen)
Parosphromenus linkei copyright Rafael Eggli Parosphromenus linkei copyright Rafael Eggli Parosphromenus linkei copyright Rafael Eggli Parosphromenus linkei copyright Rafael Eggli Parosphromenus linkei copyright Rafael Eggli
P. linkei Kot­te­lat 1991
Parosphromenus linkei inhab­its mainly the south­ern low­lands of Kali­man­tan Ten­gah, north of Suka­mara and south of Pudukali. Also occours near Pan­gal­abuun. Although wide dis­tri­b­u­tion the species is highly endan­gered, as the area where it could be found has no nat­ural veg­e­ta­tion any longer and is drained for agri­cul­tural purposes.
P. linkei is one of the most attrac­tive parosphromenus species, with its speck­led unpaired fins, long fil­a­ment of both male and females, and it is also one of the less shy and less demand­ing species of all, and often referred to as a good ‘begin­ner’ paro.
The cau­dal fin of the male is larger and has a sig­nif­i­cantly long fil­a­ment (up to nearly 1.5 cm), most sig­nif­i­cant in the males. Both male and female have spot­ted unpaired fins and on the side of the body, 03 (often 2) con­sec­u­tive thick black spots. Some males have sev­eral small red dots around these black spots. The body col­oration varies from light beige to bronze or even burgundy.
Breed­ing with parosphromenus linkei is rel­a­tively easy com­pared to other parosphromenus species, it is known to be robust and less sen­si­tive. Some­times very large bub­ble nest is built, a clutch can be large for big ani­mal (up to 100 eggs or more)
Source : Peter Finke
Pho­to­cre­dit 2+3 Orig­i­nal habi­tat of P. linkei, Suka­mara, photo Kishii
1 Male, 4 female, 5. nest, 6 fry, 7 male Photo Rafael Eggli
P. paludicola pair Copyright Wentian ShiP. paludicola habitat Copyright Mohd Illiam Norhakim Lokman P. paludicola habitat Copyright Mohd Illiam Norhakim Lokman Paludicola 'Paka' (Copyright Christian Hinz) P. paludicola Copyright David Jones

Parosphromenus palu­di­cola Tweedie 1952

P. palu­di­cola was the sec­ond form after ‘deiss­neri’ recog­nised clearly as a dis­tinct species due to its struc­tural pecu­liar­i­ties. It was dis­cov­ered only around 1950 in Tereng­ganu by the cura­tor of the Raf­fles Museum, M.W.F. Tweedei and got its first descrip­tion in 1952.
The dis­tri­b­u­tion is very large extended in the north-​east of the Malaysian penin­sula (province Tereng­ganu), occur­ing even in south­ern Thai­land as the only licorice gourami species.
The almost total absence of light colours in this unusual species shows that its cen­tre of dis­tri­b­u­tion is not sit­u­ated in black water. Like other Parosphromenus some of their local vari­ants inhabit black water habi­tats as well, but oppo­site to almost all other Parosphromenus forms, they live in clear water, too (but mainly in tran­si­tional areas). They pre­fer lighter biotopes, com­pared to other species of the genus: their adapt­abil­ity to man-​made water bod­ies (road­side chan­nels, reser­voirs, pond-​like struc­tures) is much higher.
P. palu­di­cola is described as quite an unusual species of parosphromenus, as it has some char­ac­ter­is­tics which is dif­fer­ent from other species. This can par­tic­u­larly be observed in the fin struc­ture and in the lack of flu­o­res­cent col­ors in the unpaired fins (with few excep­tions). The body appear more elon­gated. (see https://​www​.parosphromenus​-project​.org/​e​n​/​p​a​l​u​d​i​c​o​l​a.)
Within the species, though, vari­a­tions occurs quite often in col­oration, with beige-​brown, bluish-​pink, or brown-​red or almost entirely red colour. Fur­ther­more fish of most pop­u­la­tions are elon­gated and thin, while oth­ers appear com­pact with higher backs. The ven­tral fins of all males have very long fil­a­ments. The cau­dal fins of some males are also oval or tri­an­gu­lar elon­gated with sev­eral fil­a­ments, while oth­ers are more rounded with just one mid­dle fil­a­ment ray
Usu­ally one of the least demand­ing licorice gouramis, because it is not nec­es­sar­ily depen­dent on the sim­u­la­tion of pure black water con­di­tions. The species is there­fore (together with P. fil­a­men­to­sus or P. linkei) par­tic­u­larly well suited for begin­ners in the licorice gourami aquar­ium hobby. The con­duc­tiv­ity of the water should be less than 100 micro Siemens /​cm, a value between 30 and 50 is con­sid­ered ideal. The pH value can range between 4.0 and 6.5, the height of the value is not cru­cial, but a low value can be use­ful for its antibi­otic effect. The addi­tion of humic sub­stances or humic acid-​emerging mate­r­ial is also help­ful. That the species is not found in pure black water, does not mean that humic sub­stances can be dis­pensed entirely.
P. palu­di­cola clutches may be among the largest in the genus (up to 100 eggs). A bub­ble nest is built, but often it remains rudimentary.
P. palu­di­cola is one of the species which the Parosphromenus Project has good suc­cess with, — it is being safely kept in good num­bers in our CCP programme.
Pho­tos 1. Male and female (Went­ian Shi) 2 + 3 Palu­di­cola habi­tat (Mohd Illiam Norhakim Lok­man) 4. male (David Jones) 5 Palu­di­cola ‘Paka’ (Chris­t­ian Hinz)

UK coordinator Kevin Marshall and Chester Zoo manager Hannah Thomas Adult paludicola photo David Jones

Almost a year to the day after receiv­ing a gift of 6 young P. palu­di­cola from Chester Zoo our UK co-​ordinator Kevin Mar­shall is pleased to wel­come Chester Zoo’s man­ager Han­nah Thomas to his fish house to hand over fry back to the zoo in order to bol­ster their breed­ing program.

In the Parosphromenus Project we also some­times have the oppor­tu­nity to go out and present our work in dif­fer­ent places. We greatly appri­ci­ate this.
Yes­ter­day I vis­ited Malmø Akvariefören­ing, in Swe­den, to talk about parosphromenus species and the work of the Parosphromenus Project. An alto­gether pleas­ant evening with inter­ested lis­ten­ers, and also a fine day walk­ing around in spring­time Malmø cen­ter. Heres a few pic­tures 🙂 — Helene
P. nagyi copyright Martin Hallmann P nagyi 'kuantan' Copyright Vierke P nagyi copyright Helene Schoubye
P. nagyi Schaller 1985
P. nagyi from ranges of the east coast of West­ern Malaysia. The species has a rel­a­tively large area of dis­tri­b­u­tion; it is found from Pekan in the south going north via Kuan­tan and Cher­at­ing up to the area north of Cukai.
Although the species has a large dis­tri­b­u­tion area, most of the nat­ural habi­tats have been mas­sively altered by human activ­i­ties. Nowa­days the fish is found mainly in remain­ing resid­ual habi­tats and road­side canals that are still fed by rem­nants of for­mer black water swamps.
When the males show courtship colours, they can­not be con­fused with other species. In nor­mal colours males are still dis­tin­guish­able by their mor­pho­logic dif­fer­ences. The risk of con­fu­sion is higher for the females, because mor­pho­log­i­cal dif­fer­ences are less sig­nif­i­cant, but on close obser­va­tion they are still eas­ily iden­ti­fi­able. The pat­tern is com­pletely dif­fer­ent from other species: a hor­i­zon­tal two-​part coloura­tion, below black­ish, top dark to golden brown. Also the very short look­ing cau­dal, in which the fin rays exceed the fin area by about 1mm of and where the turquoise edge appears fur­ther for­ward, is char­ac­ter­is­tic of this species.
Unusu­ally short fil­a­ments of the ven­tral fins, which show a dark spot are also very typ­i­cal for both sexes.
Two habi­tat types are known in which the males are eas­ily dis­tin­guish­able by the eye-​catching band in the tail: in the form of terra typ­ica (Form “Kuan­tan”) this is white, and thus shows a dif­fer­ent colour as the blue rib­bons in dor­sal and anal. In the north­ern form “Cher­at­ing” the band is blue as well. In addi­tion the above-​described exten­sion of the tail fin rays is less clear in this form, and there­fore the cau­dal appears to be longer. “Kuan­tan” males also carry a sig­nif­i­cant dark spot in the rear part of the dor­sal fin. (photo 3)
The species is rarely seen in trade today; only the Kuantan-​form. The aquar­ium stock depends almost com­pletely on pri­vately imported fish. P. nagyi is one of the more eas­ier species to breed.
Pho­to­cre­dit 1. Mar­tin Hall­mann, 2. Helene Schoubye, 3. Vierke

AN OPPOR­TU­NITY TO MEET IN PER­SONIGL MEET­ING 1719 JUNI 2022

Our last inter­na­tional meet­ing in per­son was 2019 in Chester (UK). Due to the global pan­demic sit­u­a­tion, we were not able to arrange another meet­ing since that time. Today we still have issues with the risc of plan­ning and later can­celling a meeting.

How­ever, we feel the need to meet in per­son again and sensed a chance when the IGL invited us to join their meet­ing in Ver­den (DE). So if you are inter­ested, save the date June 17th, 2022!

As the IGL is mainly a ger­man organ­i­sa­tion, most talks will be held in ger­man. But we asked the speaker to use eng­lish slides if they give the talk in ger­man. Apart from that, you will have the chance to meet and get to know us in the evening in an infor­mal Parosphromenus-​Project meeting.

More infor­ma­tion about place and time here

Parosphromenus ornaticauda Copyright Wentian Shi Parosphromenus ornaticauda Copyright Wentian Shi Parosphromenus ornaticauda Copyright Wentian Shi Parosphromenus ornaticauda Copyright Wentian Shi
P. ornat­i­cauda Kot­te­lat 1991
In the future we will try to intro­duce a bit of each species to our audi­ences each month, so keep­ers can find answers to some com­mon ques­tions eas­ier. For more details please visit our species page on our web­site. https://​www​.parosphromenus​-project​.org/​e​n​/​p​-​o​r​n​a​t​i​c​a​u​d​a
P. ornat­i­cauda, from down­stream Kapuas, West Kali­man­tan. From Anjun­gan to Man­dor. Found in very typ­i­cal black peat water swamps. (pH 4.5, con­duc­tiv­ity 39 micro-​Siemens, tem­per­a­ture 27.6 degrees C, Linke) We con­firmed a even lower pH of 4.1 at 2017.
Ornat­i­cauda is one of the two smaller species (parvu­lus group), which is quite dif­fer­ent from other Parosphromenus species. They will not cross with other big species, and thus, can be found together with P. anjun­ga­nen­sis in the same habi­tat in the wild. In aquar­ium they are also peace­ful room­mates of other Paros (except parvulus).
Thus, in com­par­i­son to oth­ers big con­geners, ornat­i­cauda is a bit more sen­si­tive. The keep­ing and breed­ing attemps require more patient and con­trol of the water qual­ity, espe­cially clean­li­ness. The clutches are usu­ally small (10 to 20 eggs, rarely more) and they are often “rearranged” (from one cave to another) or “dis­ap­pear” com­pletely over night. The courtship dance of the male (see below) needs a lot of space, so small tanks (around 10l) are less suited then tanks with 20l or more. The con­duc­tiv­ity of the water should not be above 40 micro-​Siemens. The sen­si­tiv­ity of the eggs towards harm­ful bac­te­ria is high, so it is advis­able to have a low pH value (between 3 and 4) and a high con­tent of humic acids. How­ever, suc­cess­ful breed­ing has been recorded at pH 6.5 in clear water. Still, suc­cess­ful ornat­i­cauda breed­ing is regarded as the “high school” of licorice gourami hobby.
Although P. ornat­i­cauda appears today occa­sion­ally in high num­bers in the inter­na­tional trade, and although sig­nif­i­cantly more loca­tions are known com­pared to the time of its dis­cov­ery, it has to be accepted that the species is highly endan­gered. Part of the orig­i­nal habi­tat is already destroyed and has been trans­formed to palm oil plan­ta­tions. Many of the still exist­ing P.ornaticauda – biotopes have been badly dam­aged by con­t­a­m­i­na­tion with pes­ti­cides. Mainly these habi­tats are more or less affected rem­nants of swamps, still hold­ing black water, but these refuges are get­ting smaller and smaller. After all, this area is one of the most devel­opped area of this island. Human activ­i­ties are destroy­ing peat swamps and forests along the Kapuas river. Thus, it is now an IUCN CR species.
We hope more and more of them can be main­tained and dis­trib­uted within the aquar­ium com­mu­nity instead of col­lect­ing from wild.

artemia hatching setup - photo Kevin Marshall artemia hatching setup - photo Kevin Marshall

Feed­ing Parosphromenus

.… means that you have to fig­ure out many dif­fer­ent ways of pro­vid­ing good live food as it is dif­fi­cult to get them to take any other kinds of foods. Hatch­ing brine shrimp is one of the foods which is often used, and we are often asked how to do this.

Depend­ing on which way you look at it, brine shrimp hatch­eries can be as sim­ple or as com­pli­cated as you like and there are many designs on the mar­ket. These home­made hatch­eries are used by our UK co-​ordinator Kevin Mar­shall who has made them from 1 litre juice bot­tles along with a push fit on/​off valve and a few odds and ends. While the over­all design is one that has been around for a num­ber of years the con­struc­tion method is sim­ple and cost effective.

I am cer­tain there are many other ways of doing this, you are wel­come to show us your way along with any tips and tricks that you have about brine shrimp in the com­ments below.

Kevin Mar­shall

From 1859 to 2022, a jo urney of over 150 years

(A brief sum­mary of the his­tory of Parosphromenus based on the arti­cle by Prof. Dr. Dr. P. Finke, Father of PP)
Parosphromenus are both old and young, they have a his­tory of 160 years, but 80% of the species were discovered/​described within the last 40 years.
In 1859, Dutch Sci­en­tist, Bleeker found the first species from the island Bangka, the famous and leg­endary P. deiss­neri. Unfor­tu­nately the holo­type is a female which is poorly pre­served. The exact look­ing of deiss­neri remained unclear for quite a long time and becomes the ori­gin of many tax­o­nomic night­mares of this Genus.
Time flies. Only until 100 years later, in 1952, the sec­ond one P. palu­di­cola was found from Malaysia, so spe­cial that they were rec­og­nized as a dif­fer­ent spe­ceis, while many other species, like tweed­iei etc, although dis­cov­ered too, still con­sid­ered as sub­species of deiss­neri. Same hap­pened in 1955, P. suma­tranus was found in an aquar­ium export to Ger­many (as co-​catch), and con­sid­ered as P. deiss­neri sumatra.
Since then the thing changed. These small fish attracted some Ger­man hob­by­ists and researchers. They made sev­eral expe­di­tions into Bor­neo and Malaysia Penin­sula. Based on their stud­ies many famous species were dis­cov­ered and intro­duced within 20 years. In 1979, parvu­lus, 1981 fil­a­men­to­sus, 1985 nagyi, 1987 allani and har­veyi (by British) . Then pro­fes­sional tax­on­o­mist also joined in, 1991: anjun­ga­nen­sis, linkei and ornaticauda.
How­ever, there is a big prob­lem remained: the type species of this genus, deiss­neri. It is still kind of unkown. Until 1998, it is redis­coved and described again with P. bin­tan. After that, the thing can go fur­ther, many ear­lier sub­species of deiss­neri turned out to be new species: like tweed­iei, alfredi opal­lios and rub­ri­mon­tis in 2005, together with quin­decim and pahuen­sis. And a tax­o­nomic sys­tem is only until then clearly estab­lished, when the first species has already been dis­cov­ered like 150 years.
After that sev­eral new species were dis­cov­ered or finally rec­og­nized such as P. gunawani, P. phoeni­cu­rus in 2012, bar­barae in 2020. At last, in 2022, genetic analy­sis was intro­duced into the diag­no­sis of Parosphromenus and indi­cated two more new species: P. jueli­nae and P. kishii.
Now we have 23 offi­cially valid species in this genus. But of course there are cer­tainly more to be dis­cov­ered. Until then.

P. filamentosus Photo Wentian ShiP. filamentosus Photo Wentian Shi P. filamentosus Photo Wentian Shi P. cf filamentosus Photo Wentian Shi

P. fil­a­men­to­sus 3

Old vs. New
Fil­a­men­to­sus is quite an old species, found and iden­ti­fied at 1980s. How­ever, they are not so com­mon in the mar­ket after­wards. Less often col­lected from their type local­ity, around Ban­jar­masin, Kali­man­tan Selatan.
Since 1990s it is known that there is a sim­i­lar species labeled as cf. fil­a­men­to­sus around Palangkaraya, quite far from Ban­jar­masin. Even not in the same river sys­tem. After that, sev­eral other pop­u­la­tions have been recorded inbe­tween. socalled, sp. Gaw­ing from Sg. Kapuas at the mid­dle, and sp. Ampah from Bar­ito east. To clar­ify this isue, we made a trip into this area, from west to east, across the three main rivers there, Kahayan-​Kapuas-​Barito. The result is interesting.
All the north­ern ones are sim­i­lar look­ing, which can be con­sid­ered as same, cf. fil­a­men­to­sus Palangkaraya, sp. Gaw­ing, and sp. Bar­ito west, they have a dis­tinct band at unpaired fin and a sim­i­lar col­oration. This is slightly dif­fer­ent from cur­rently remain­ing pop­u­la­tion from the south, Ban­jar­masin: which do not have such band at all or very vague with­out dis­tinct shape. The prob­lem now is:
All the cur­rent fil­a­men­to­sus com­mer­cial exported are these north­ern ones. The remain­ing south­ern types are old tank breed of a decade or so. We do not know now for sure the true look­ing of these south­ern ones from type local­ity. Maybe this mor­pho­log­i­cal dis­tinc­tion is not real in the wild, but a rea­son of tank breed etc. Maybe there are no cf. fil­a­men­to­sus but all just filamentosus.
Unfor­tu­nately at our pre­vi­ous expe­di­tion we did­not man­aged to reach far south to Ban­jar­masin, and the habi­tat there is also severely affected by eco­nomic activ­i­ties. If pos­si­ble we would be happy to see fresh sam­ples from their orig­i­nal habi­tat to com­pare with the cur­rent tank lines and their north­ern rel­a­tives. So we can know how fil­a­men­to­sus real looks like.
Any help is wel­come, if you live in Sela­tan maybe you can try pro­vide some updates of this species.
P. filamentosus Copyright Thomas BeuFilamentosus male Copyright Thomas Beu P. filamentosus male in cave with nest Copyright Thomas Beu P. filamentosus female Copyright Thomas Beu
In our last post, we men­tioned Parosphromenus fil­a­men­to­sus, bred by Aqua­zoo Düsseldorf.
These fish was kindly given to the Aqua­zoo, by Thomas Beu, a long term breeder of paros, and also longterm friend and breeder witin the Parosphromenus Project.
The P. fil­a­men­to­sus are from trade, and was bred by Thomas Beu since 2010.
This week we will bring a few more of his pho­tos, — and by the way – did you read his arti­cle about breed­ing p. filamentosus ?
Nachzuchter­folg auf kle­in­sten Raum
Its in ger­man, but for those who under­stand ger­man, it’s a really inter­est­ing and great arti­cle which you can find it on our home­page along with other inter­est­ing articles.
All pho­tos by Thomas Beu

Parosphromenus filamentosus male - photo Thomas BeuWork­ing together is essential !

The Parosphromenus Project have estab­lished a coop­er­a­tion with Aqua­zoo Düs­sel­dorf in 2021, and received Parosphromenus fil­a­men­to­sus from Thomas Beu, — a long term mem­ber of PP, — and in the Fall Cen­sus 2021 Aqua­zoo Düs­sel­dorf reported suc­ces with breed­ing these, with 30 off­spring. We con­grat­u­late Aqua­zoo Düs­sel­dorf with this. It is a great achieve­ment, and helps us secure this par­tic­u­lar line of P. Filamentosus.

P filamentosus fry - photo Thomas BeuBreeding facility p. filamentosus Aquazoo Düsseldorf - photo Dennis Hempelmann Breeding facility p. filamentosus Aquazoo Düsseldorf - photo Dennis Hempelmann

We also wish to thank Aqua­zoo Düs­sel­dorf for donat­ing a big sum of money to us, — we are very grate­ful for this, thank you ❤️

For any other who wish to donate an amount, small or large please look here https://​www​.parosphromenus​-project​.org/​e​n​/​d​o​n​a​t​i​o​n

#aqua­zoodüs­sel­dorf

https://​www​.face​book​.com/​A​q​u​a​z​o​o​D​u​e​s​s​e​l​d​o​r​f

Happy New Year

Dear all.
From the Parosphromenus Project we wish to thank you all for all your ded­i­cated work and coop­er­a­tions on so many dif­fer­ent fronts, pri­vate aquar­ists, with breed­ing, help­ing each other with dif­fi­cult prob­lems, shar­ing, as well as the grow­ing num­ber of insti­tu­tions which sup­ports our work.
We are exited to enter 2022, we already know exhit­ing new things will unfold and we are look­ing for­ward to shar­ing those with you.
But first af all, enjoy the last hours of 21 and get well into the next 🎉⭐️💥❤️
Many kind regards the team behind the Parosphromenus Project.

Parosphromenus bin­tan ’Bintan’.For the new con­ser­va­tion project of Parosphromenus Project, we imported some Parosphromenus sam­ple from Bin­tan Island. Col­lected by a local friend, who lives in Bin­tan Island​.In a post from Feb­ru­ary Went­ian Shi wrote in Jour­ney to the water that some inter­est­ing obser­va­tions of this imported fish, raised the ques­tion – or ques­tions : Either the orig­i­nal P. bin­tan was not entirely blue, as described, but has a small inte­rior band of orange red, — or there may be a sec­ond species/​type on the Bin­tan Island.
I received one male and two females of this species in spring 2021, — with the intend of breed­ing – and try to doc­u­ment with photos.The breed­ing attempt was very suc­ces­full, — the off­spring now is around 6070, but the doc­u­ment­ing less a suc­cess. The male has spend most of the time in the cave, — and the few pho­tos I have taken were not the best, — how­ever heres a few of this very strong and beau­ti­ful species. Helene



Parosphromenus Series 8.1, P. kishii

Mys­te­ri­ous as Nebula

If jueli­nae is one of the most beautu­ful species in my eyes, kishii is cer­tainly the most var­ied species I have ever met until now. The cau­dal fin pat­tern of kishii is never same. On the certer of the dark red cau­dal fin, there scat­tered many irreg­u­lar blue blotches with ran­dom sizes, which form ran­dom pat­terns with­out con­stant or dis­tinct bound­ray. just like the Neb­ula, every spec­i­men, dif­fer­ent. The blue color of thee blotches are also strange, it is not those com­mon met­alic blue like other paros, eg, bin­tan, deiss­neri, har­veyi etc, but a mys­te­ri­ous light cyan color.

These blotches also dont stay like that, they change and develop with the time. Juve­niles hava a full red cau­dal, the elder the larger the blue parts and more com­plex the pat­tern. Fur­ther, even the cau­dal shapes are never con­stant amony them. They can be rounded, can be sharply pointed in rhom­bic shape (which is most com­mon), can even have a short fila, some­times even in a non-​convex shape .… Even among the off­springs of the same breed of same par­ents, there can be dif­fer­ent shapes.…
You never know what you will get.…

Two new species of parosphromenus from Indone­sia described

NEWS !!! Con­grat­u­la­tions with fan­tas­tic work !

Two new species of parosphrol­menus from Indone­sia has been described by our team sci­en­tist Went­ian Shi and his teammates.

Parosphromenus jueli­nae (left) and parosphromenus kishii (right)

You can read the whole describ­tion here, and we hope to bring more infor­ma­tion about this later Link

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