P. bintan (Foto: H. Linke)

Kot­te­lat & Ng 1998

First descrip­tion: Parosphromenus bin­tan, a new osphrone­mid fish from Bin­tan and Bangka islands, Indone­sia, with redescrip­tion of P. deiss­neri. Ichthy­olog­i­cal Explo­ration of Fresh­wa­ters, 8: 263272.

Char­ac­ter­is­tics: Over­all length max. 3.5 cm. Dor­sal struc­ture: XI-​XIII, 57, total 1720, Anal: XI-​XIII, 810, total 1922. ♂ in breed­ing colours, with thin white-​lined unpaired fins, in which both sides show a blue band, framed by broad dark zones, cen­tral zone of the cau­dal, a dirty red-​black. Pelvic fins blue with rel­a­tively short white-​blue fil­a­ments. ♀ dif­fer­en­ti­a­tion is hardly pos­si­ble from other species with a round tail based on color char­ac­ter­is­tics — con­sid­er­a­tion of fin for­mula is required. Courtship col­or­ing of ♀: pale-​beige color. Because many sim­i­lar, but some­times differently-​colored forms have been dis­cov­ered since the first descrip­tion and fur­ther round-​tailed forms have been described in 2005 by the same authors, the species delim­i­ta­tion has once again become ques­tion­able (“bin­tan com­plex”) if not, accord­ing to Kot­te­lat & Ng, the iso­lated island-​like occur­rence is regarded as a suf­fi­cient evi­dence for their own species sta­tus. Espe­cially in this bin­tan com­plex, genetic stud­ies are needed.

Sim­i­lar species: Kot­te­lat and Ng rede­fined the species P. deiss­neri in the same pub­li­ca­tion, so P. bin­tan can not be con­fused any­more due to the sig­nif­i­cant struc­tural dif­fer­ences and color dif­fer­ences of both types. In males, the risk of con­fu­sion with other licorice gouramis is low, because of the color dif­fer­ences in the phe­no­typic dif­fer­en­ti­a­tion of described round-​tail–Parosphromenus. But for many, still unde­scribed, forms from other regions (eg, “spec.” blue line “, spec. Sen­tang, both Suma­tra) the risk is quite high. In females it is gen­er­ally very high. It can be assumed that there is already con­fu­sion, and some acci­den­tal hybridiza­tion might have already occurred. P.deissneri was char­ac­terised as the point-​tailed sp based on their find­ing the sp. in the same loca­tion as the orig­i­nal descrip­tion but of course the orig­i­nal (Bleeker) descrip­tion was based on a female !!

Occur­rence /​Dis­tri­b­u­tion: accord­ing to the first descrip­tion, they are endemic to the Malaysian islands of Bin­tan and Bangka, but in fact, mainly due to the recent dis­cov­er­ies in Suma­tra and Bor­neo, the dis­tri­b­u­tion is unclear again.

Threat: High. If the species is endemic on the island, it is very high. If they are (partly) iden­ti­cal with other forms in other places, it is less so but still high in gen­eral. Each of the indi­vid­ual forms is highly endangered.

Dis­cov­ery /​First import: Dif­fi­cult to deter­mine. Has prob­a­bly been imported unno­ticed long before the first description.

Trade: In the trade, it is almost impos­si­ble to dis­en­tan­gle the name and iden­ti­fi­ca­tion con­fu­sion. The wild-​caught fish, some­times offered under the false name “P. deiss­neri” are imported only rarely from the islands of Bangka and Bin­tan. The point of view that it is really P. bin­tan, can­not be cor­rect in many cases. This goes mainly back to the still wide­spread sim­pli­fi­ca­tion “the fish for­merly known as deiss­neri is now called bin­tan”. There may also be other con­fu­sions with other round-​finned forms of licorice gouramis from Malaysia or Indone­sia. The dis­cov­ery of new forms, espe­cially from Suma­tra, increases the name con­fu­sion in the trade even more.

Care /​Breed­ing: Stan­dard con­di­tions for licorice gourami-​keeping and breed­ing. The ‘Team Bor­neo’ has mea­sured pH val­ues of 4.8, GH lev­els of 0, KH val­ues of 1 and a tem­per­a­ture of 25.2 degrees Cel­sius, with slightly brown water for loca­tions in Pulau Bin­tan and Pulau Bangka.

Behav­iour /​Par­tic­u­lar­i­ties: No spe­cial fea­tures. Head-​down-​courtship. Mod­er­ately dis­tinct foam nest, some­times only rudi­men­tary. Accom­pa­ny­ing fish such as Betta species (eg B. bur­di­gala, B.chlorpharynx or B. schal­leri) occur in the native habi­tat, in which B. Bur­di­gala would occur on the for­est floor, — and P. Bin­tan in the streams around the for­est. This would also mean that it would not be appro­pri­ate to keep these in the same aquarium.




Parosphromenus aff. bintan Copyright RikoParosphromenus aff. bintan blueline, Copyright GantschniggParosphromenus bintan femaleImport of p. bintan, Bangka, Copyright LollParosphromenus bintan biotope Bangka Copyright TeamBorneoParosphromenus bintan biotope Bangka Copyright KishiPossibel paroshromenus bintan Copyright KishiParosphromenus bintan Copyright Kishi

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