Kot­te­lat & Ng 2005

First descrip­tion:Diag­noses of six new species of Parosphromenus (Teleostei: Osphrone­mi­dae) from Malay Penin­sula and Bor­neo, with notes on other species. The Raf­fles Bul­letin of Zool­ogy 2005 Sup­ple­ment No. 13: 101113.

Char­ac­ter­is­tics: one of the largest and strongest p. species, belong­ing to those with long dor­sal fin (species name): Dor­sal: XIII-​XV, 67, total 1517, anal fin: XIII, 910, total 2223. Total body length often 5,00 cm. Stronger, less del­i­cate, some­times some­what com­pact appear­ing body physique com­pared to many other species. Also the colour­ing is dif­fer­ent from the rest of the species. The male has strik­ing mul­ti­coloured banded unpaired fins with a sequence (from out­side to inside) of par­al­lel nar­row white, broader almost black, light blue, broad red-​brown and (some­times near the body) white bands.

In the par­tic­u­larly strik­ing cau­dal fin the black area forms an irreg­u­lar, resolved spot on the edge. There­fore these fish have a very colour­ful appear­ance. Also the dark bands, which are typ­i­cal for licorice gouramy, con­tribute to this pic­ture, because in this species they are often green­ish and even inter­rupted. These fea­tures give the fish a stain-​like body image. Con­trary to the other species of the genus, the male has a par­tic­u­lar colour pat­tern in the unpaired fins that is grey show­ing many white, but in fact trans­par­ent, small stains. G. Kopic points at the fact that dom­i­nant females can some­times be almost as colour­ful as the males. The black stripes in the unpaired fins are usu­ally sig­nif­i­cant in the females, too.

Sim­i­lar species: due to the dif­fer­ent coloura­tion and com­pact body shape com­pared to other species, the risk of con­fu­sion is low. The struc­ture of the fins and the coloura­tion of the tail fin should be suf­fi­cient for diag­no­sis in both sexes even for not fully grown up fish.

Occur­rence /​Dis­tri­b­u­tion: Bor­neo, south­east­ern Kali­man­tan Barat in the basin of Sun­gai Pawang and Sun­gai Liong, north of Nanga Tayap (terra typ­ica). The name spec. Man­is­mata (or Manis-​Mata), orig­i­nally used in Euro­pean trade, refers to a set­tle­ment fur­ther north, although it is unclear if the fish is found there.

Threat: as the rain for­est and wet­lands destruc­tion is not a locally or tem­porar­ily lim­ited event and the over­all dis­tri­b­u­tion of the species is still unknown (up to now only few local­i­ties are con­firmed), the fish has to be regarded as highly endan­gered. Addi­tion­ally it has to be con­sid­ered that most of the fish in hob­by­ists tanks go back to only a few ini­tial imports.

Discovery/​First import: P. quincedim was found by H. Kishi (“Team Bor­neo”) in 2001 near Nanga Tayap. It was first intro­duced to Japan and later on in the same year in Ger­many and other coun­tries by the com­pany Glaser. Here it was traded as spec. Manis-​Mata. This species is one of the few that were first intro­duced in Europe by the trade.

Trade: the species was in trade only rarely after 2001, no longer as far as we know after 2006. Most of the remain­ing aquar­ium stock goes back to the first import and to pri­vate imports of few parosphromenus spe­cial­ists. Often the old name spec. Man­is­mata still occurs, which draws off the atten­tion from the real area of distribution.

Care /​Breed­ing: not dif­fer­ent from the other species. Although the species appears to be tough and in fact some­times with­stands a cer­tain dete­ri­o­ra­tion of its envi­ron­ment, atten­tion should be paid to the main­tainance of low con­duc­tiv­ity and acidic pH, oth­er­wise the beau­ti­ful colours will not be vis­i­ble for long and breed­ing will not be suc­cess­ful. Apart from this, breed­ing this species can some­times be easy in a tank that is suf­fi­ciently large and has some hid­ing places for the females. The robust­ness of the fish does not allow the use of small-​size tanks (<20L), which are well suited for many other species. They can pro­duce rel­a­tively large clutches (up to more then 100 eggs).

Behav­iour /​Par­tic­u­lar­i­ties:the fish shows hor­i­zon­tally courtship and was almost some­thing like a “fash­ion” fish due to its strik­ing coloura­tion. Dur­ing the first years after its intro­duc­tion it was bred by some spe­cial­ists in rel­a­tively large num­bers. Mean­while only a small remain­ing stock is available.


Parosphromenus quindecim male Photo JJPhoto.dkParosphromenus quindecim couple Copyright S. RickParosphromenus quindecim couple Copyright S. RickParosphromenus quindecim male Copyright Lawrence KentParosphromenus quindecim male Photo Helene SchoubyeParosphromenus quindecim male Photo Helene SchoubyeParosphromenus quindecim couple Photo Stefanie Rick

Parosphromenus quin­decim female

Parosphromenus quindecim female Copyright JJPhoto.dkParosphromenus quindecim females Photo JJPhoto.dkParosphromenus quindecim female in spawning colouring Photo Stefanie RickParosphromenus quindecim female in spawning colouring Photo Stefanie Rick

Parosphromenus quin­decim fry

Parosphromenus quindecim fry Photo Stefanie RickParosphromenus quindecim fry 6 weeks Photo Stefanie RickParosphromenus quindecim fry 6 weeks Photo Stefanie RickParosphromenus quindecim fry 6 weeks Photo Stefanie Rick

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