rub­ri­mon­tis

Parosphromenus cf rubrimontis Copyright Stefanie Rick

Kot­te­lat & Ng 2005

First descrip­tion: Diag­noses of six new species of Parosphromenus (Teleostei: Osphrone­mi­dae) from Malay Penin­sula and Bor­neo, with notes on other species. The Raf­fles Bul­letin of Zool­ogy 2005 Sup­ple­ment No. 13: 101113.

Char­ac­ter­is­tics:licorice gourami from the bintan-​harvey fam­ily. total length max. 3.5 cm. Fin for­mula: Dor­sal: XI-​XII, 57, total 1619, anal fin: XIII-​XIV, 68, total 1921. Rounded cau­dal fin. The male always has a pointed dor­sal fin, partly very long, almost like a pen­nant. It always shows a fine white egde of the coloured unpaired fins, a fea­ture that is not to be found in the females. The male always shows, besides the strik­ing turquoise bands, species-​typical red mark­ings in the dor­sal fin (body-​sided band) and cau­dal fin (often extended red cen­tral area), band-​like also in the rear area of the anal fin, extended for­ward just before the pelvic fins in some indi­vid­u­als. This species has a cer­tain vari­abil­ity, not only spe­cific to the local­ity, but also to the strain or even the clutch. The ven­tral fins are blue to black-​green; the fil­a­ments are long and black.

Sim­i­lar species: super­fi­cially regarded, the males can be con­fused with other species, which have red com­po­nents in the unpaired fins. The risk of con­fu­sion in females is gen­er­ally high. Males can eas­ily be con­fused with P. Alfredi. The only clear dif­fer­ence is in the ven­tral fins, which are light blue to white for alfredi, while rub­ri­mon­tis males have blue, black-​green or black. These very dark ven­tral fil­a­ments are also an impor­tant fea­ture for the dif­fer­en­ci­a­tion with P. opal­lius.

Occur­rence /​Dis­tri­b­u­tion: West-​Malaysia, province Perak. The terra typ­ica near Bukit Merah (mean­ing “red moun­tain” just like the species name), orig­i­nally a very impres­sive area, and rich in species, is almost com­pletely destroyed today.. How­ever the species still exists in remain­ing swamp areas in the sur­round­ing (as of 2011).

Threat: very high, the terra typ­ica has already been destroyed by drain­ing and con­ver­sion into agri­cul­tural land (oil palm) dur­ing the time of the first descrip­tion. The other small scale habi­tats in the sur­round­ing, where the species still occurs, are highly endan­gered by sim­i­lar devel­op­ments. P. Rub­ri­mon­tis is one of the most beau­ti­ful and most endan­gered licorice gouramis.

Discovery/​First import: date of dis­cov­ery unclear, because at first – like in other cases – in the belief only one wide­spread parosphromenus “deiss­neri” exists, the species was con­fused with this one. R. Ottinger brought the species to Europe from Bukit Merah in begin­ning of 1984. Since then sev­eral pri­vate imports took place, mainly by enthu­si­asts (e.g. Z. Zakaria, H. Linke), in the end only from relict local­i­ties in the fur­ther sur­round­ing of Bukit Merah.

Trade: before the destruc­tion of the orig­i­nal local­ity, the species appeared a few times in the inter­na­tional trade under false names (trade names or “deiss­neri”). Since then only few com­mer­cial imports of rubrimontis-​forms took place. These strains, partly with vari­able coloura­tion, have been kept and bred seper­ately as a precaution.

Care /​Breed­ing: like other licorice gouramis. Linke found low pH val­ues (between 3.5 and 4.5) and an extremely low con­duc­tiv­ity (only up to 20 micro Siemens/​cm) in the orig­i­nal habi­tat, a typ­i­cal black water creek, which was very dark coloured by humic sub­stances. These val­ues should be pur­sued in the tank too. Very impor­tant is, besides a gen­er­ally low salt con­tent), the absence of germs. P. rub­ri­mon­tis belongs to the more demand­ing species, regard­ing water qual­ity and hygiene, if they should be kept and bred suc­cess­fully over a longer time. Under these con­di­tions, this is well pos­si­ble. Small to medium sized clutches (aver­age 2040 eggs).

Behav­iour /​Par­tic­u­lar­i­ties:Head-​down courtship. Males in hor­i­zon­tal posi­tion show­ing dark coloured lower body part dur­ing aggres­sive con­fronta­tion with other males. Females become very pale, almost yel­low dur­ing courtship.

Lit­er­a­ture:

Weblinks:

Parosphromenus rubrimontis habitat east of Bukit Mehra Photo Christian HinzParosphromenus rubrimontis habitat east of Bukit Mehra Photo Christian HinzParosphromenus rubrimontis 'Tanjon Malim' Photo Karsten Keibel

Parosphromenus rub­ri­mon­tis ‘Mim­bon 2008

Parosphromenus cf. rubrimontis 'mimbon 2008' male Copyright S.RickParosphromenus cf. rubrimontis 'mimbon 2008' male Copyright S.RickParosphromenus cf. rubrimontis 'mimbon 2008' male Copyright S.RickParosphromenus cf. rubrimontis 'mimbon 2008' male Copyright S.RickParosphromenus cf. rubrimontis 'mimbon 2008' male Copyright S.RickParosphromenus cf. rubrimontis 'mimbon 2008' male Copyright S.RickParosphromenus cf opallios 'Mimbon 2008' couple Copyright S. RickParosphromenus cf. rubrimontis 'mimbon 2008' small fry Copyright S.RickParosphromenus cf. rubrimontis 'mimbon 2008' small fry Copyright S.RickParosphromenus cf opallios 'Mimbon 2008' couple Copyright S. RickParosphromenus cf. rubrimontis 'mimbon 2008' male Copyright S.Rick


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